In the Face of Biological Parent Opposition, How Does the Court Determine a Child’s Best Interests in Adoption Proceedings? – Thomson & Barnes [2022] FedCFamC1F 504 (15 July 2022)

Case Summary

In matters of adoption, particularly within the context of step-parent adoptions, the paramount consideration is the child’s best interests, which includes emotional and psychological well-being, familial stability, and the child’s own wishes, especially in cases involving older children. This principle guides judicial decisions even amidst complex legal and familial dynamics.



The case of “Thomson & Barnes [2022] FedCFamC1F 504” offers an insightful look into the complexities surrounding adoption proceedings within the framework of Australian family law. This case particularly focuses on the legal intricacies and human dynamics involved in a step-parent’s application for adoption. The central issue of the case was the application for leave to commence adoption proceedings. The key contention was from Mr. Barnes, X’s biological father, who opposed the adoption despite having limited contact with X since his early childhood​.

Case link: Thomson & Barnes [2022] FedCFamC1F 504 (15 July 2022)



The case, adjudicated on 15 July 2022 by the Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia (Division 1), revolves around the application for adoption by Mr. Thomson and Ms. Thomson, the step-father and biological mother, respectively, of the child X​.

In this case, Mr. and Ms. Thomson applied for leave to commence adoption proceedings for X, a 14-year-old, who is Ms. Thomson’s biological child and Mr. Thomson’s step-child. X’s biological father, Mr. Barnes, opposed the adoption. He had limited contact with X since early childhood.

The case centered around whether it was in X’s best interests to allow the adoption to proceed. The court considered factors like X’s bond with Mr. Thomson, who he considered his father, and the stable family environment provided by the Thomsons. Ultimately, the court granted leave to commence adoption proceedings, prioritising X’s best interests​​​​​​​​.

Key Laws Discussed:

  1. Family Law Act 1975 (Cth): Specifically, Section 60G, which outlines the criteria and jurisdiction for granting leave to commence adoption proceedings in Australia. This section emphasizes the necessity to consider the child’s best interests in making such a decision.
  2. Adoption Act 2009 (Qld): This Act governs adoption in Queensland and requires an application for leave to commence adoption proceedings under the Family Law Act as a prerequisite to an adoption application.
  3. Section 61E of the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth): Brief commentary is discussed on the recent decision of Hanlon & Hanlon [2022] FedCFamC1F 435, where Gill J rejected the view that the application for leave to adopt must include both the step-parent and the biological parent who is married to or in a de facto relationship with the step-parent.


Key Parties

  1. Applicants: Mr. Thomson (step-father) and Ms. Thomson (biological mother).
  2. Defendant/Respondent: Mr. Barnes, X’s biological father.
  3. Court: Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia (Division 1).



The Court decided in favor of granting leave to commence adoption proceedings. This decision was primarily influenced by the consideration of X’s best interests, including his expressed wishes to be adopted by Mr. Thomson and the existing strong emotional and familial bond with the Thomson family​​.


Legal and Societal Issues

This case highlights the delicate balance between biological and psychological parenthood in adoption proceedings. It underscores the paramountcy of a child’s best interests in such decisions, considering both legal statutes and the child’s emotional and social welfare​​.



“Thomson & Barnes [2022]” is an important case that illustrates the complexities inherent in family law, especially regarding adoption. It emphasizes the importance of the child’s best interests and the nuanced understanding of family dynamics, beyond mere biological relationships. The Court’s decision reflects a sensitive approach to the child’s needs and familial bonds, setting a precedent for similar cases in the future.

From the “Thomson & Barnes [2022]” case, individuals in similar situations can glean several key takeaways and lessons:

  1. Child’s Best Interests: The paramount consideration in adoption cases is the child’s best interests, encompassing emotional, psychological, and social welfare.
  2. Biological vs. Psychological Parenthood: The case underscores that psychological bonds, not just biological ties, play a crucial role in decisions about a child’s upbringing and welfare.
  3. Legal Framework and Jurisdiction: Understanding the specific legal procedures and jurisdictional requirements, as highlighted by the references to the Family Law Act 1975 and Adoption Act 2009, is essential.
  4. Child’s Wishes: The child’s own wishes and feelings, particularly in cases involving older children, are taken into serious consideration.
  5. Independent Expert Opinions: The use of independent experts, like psychologists, can provide crucial insights into the child’s needs and wishes.
  6. Preparation for Legal Complexities: Be prepared for legal complexities, especially when jurisdictional and legislative changes occur, as seen in this case where jurisdiction over adoption proceedings shifted.
  7. Communication and Respect: Maintaining respectful and positive communication about all parties involved, including the biological parent, can be beneficial, especially in understanding the child’s perspective.


Further Questions

  • How does Australian law view step-parent adoption?

Australian law views step-parent adoption within the context of the child’s best interests, taking into account the stability, emotional bonds, and welfare the step-parent can provide.

In the case of “Thomson & Barnes [2022]”, the court granted leave for adoption proceedings by the step-father, Mr. Thomson, demonstrating a recognition of the strong psychological and emotional parent-child relationship developed over years.

This case exemplifies how Australian law can prioritise the well-being and established familial bonds in step-parent adoption cases, even in the face of biological parent opposition.

  • How does the court determine what was in the child’s best interests?

In determining a child’s best interests, the court considers various factors, including the emotional and psychological welfare of the child, the stability of the home environment, and the child’s own expressed wishes.

  • What impact does a child’s wishes have in family court decisions about adoption?

In family court decisions about adoption, a child’s wishes can be given significant consideration, especially as they grow older and are able to express their preferences and understand the implications of such decisions. The impact of a child’s wishes can be substantial in guiding the court’s decision-making process.

In this case, the court heavily weighed the child’s expressed desire to be adopted by his step-father, influenced by the psychological bond and stable family environment provided by the step-father. This example underscores the legal principle that children’s voices are an important aspect in determining their best interests in family law.